Rayat Bahra University

Rayat Bahra University (RBU), a private university situated in Mohali, Punjab, India.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] Rayat Bahra was established in 2001 and University was registered in 2014. The university is empowered for awarding degrees vide letter No. 8-83/2014 (CPP-J/PU) dated 26 September 2014, under section 22 of UGC Act.

Skill Development Centre (SDC)

The university curriculum has been evolved after constant interaction with leading professionals who are a part of Industry and Academic advisory boards. Also, a strong emphasis is placed on developing analytical skills, communication, team building and problem solving skills. The university also possesses unique Skill Development Centre (SDC), empowering students with necessary skills to enhance their employability. The SDC has strong nexus with the industry and imparts useful soft skills pertaining to communication skills, professional ethics and sound values, enabling students to venture out confidently and proving their caliber in workplace.

Student Information Care and Counseling Cell (SIC3)

RBU facilitates resolution of questions, concerns, choices and changes related to student life through Student Information Care and Counseling Cell (SIC3). This counseling center provides free, confidential counseling services to all currently enrolled full time students to give an ambience that is welcoming and comfortable. Also, the counselors help students to increase their resilience, address their grievances and maintain positive well-being by developing effective coping and problem-solving skills. In addition, the cell also has a case manager who can assist parents and students to locate community based services if requested or deemed appropriate.


Changsheng Bio-Technology


Vernalis Research

Vernalis Research develops and applies fragment and structure-based methods to drug discovery,[1][2][3] and has generated cell active lead compounds and development candidates against biological targets in oncology, neurodegeneration, anti-infectives and inflammation.


Following the sale of Vernalis plc[4] on 10 October 2018, Vernalis Research is a subsidiary of Ligand Holdings UK Ltd, wholly owned by Ligand Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Their scientists, based at Granta Park, Cambridge UK, integrate fragment-based approaches, structural biology, biophysics, assay technology, drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics, cheminformatics, molecular modelling and computational, synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry to enable drug discovery on both established and novel targets, progressing projects from target identification through to clinical candidate. They have generated lead compounds on enzymes, protein-protein interactions and GPCRs, leading to clinical candidates for targets such as Chk1,[5]Hsp90,[6][7][8][9][10]Bcl-2,[11]Mcl-1,[12][13]FAAH[14] and A2A.[15]

As well as an internal portfolio of drug discovery projects, Vernalis Research has a number of research collaborations on targets with large pharmaceutical companies and academic partners. Current disclosed collaborations include those with Servier,[12][11]Daiichi Sankyo, Lundbeck[16][17] and Asahi Kasei Pharma. In 2014, the Company was awarded a Queen’s Award for Enterprise, for outstanding achievement in International Trade, endorsing both the talent and capabilities of its research group, and recognition of the growing overseas earnings it has achieved.[18]

Vernalis Research has a number of partnered and non-partnered drug candidates in pre-clinical and clinical development. These include V158866, the lead molecule arising from an in-house FAAH research programme, which completed a phase II study in spinal cord injury patients in July 2015.[19] Additionally, luminespib (AUY922) is a novel intravenous Hsp90 inhibitor with the potential to target a range of cancers, which arose from a research collaboration starting in 2004, originally between Vernalis plc, the Institute of Cancer Research and Cancer Research Technology, and then with Novartis.[7] A further example is V158411, the lead intravenous molecule arising from an in-house structure-based Chk1 oncology research programme.[5]


Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology

Coordinates: 35°21′25″N 136°16′49″E / 35.356926°N 136.280336°E / 35.356926; 136.280336


University School of Biotechnology

University School of Biotechnology (USBT) is a constituent institute of Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University. The school offers a full-time Bachelor of Technology, Master of Engineering, as well as Ph.D programs.[1]


Founded in 1999, University School of Biotechnology (USBT) was established by Government of Delhi as one of 12 University Schools of Studies under the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University. The school has recently transferred to Dwarka Campus of the University. The University School of Biotechnology ranked third all over India after National Dairy Research Institute of Karnal and Department of Biochemical Engineering & Biotechnology, IIT Delhi.[2]


USBT began with a five and half year integrated course of B. Tech/M. Tech with eleven semesters and Ph.D. program. But from the academic session 2004-2005 onwards, the M. Tech program has been delinked from B.Tech program and the two program are being offered under dual degree program – B.Tech/M.Tech dual degree course and separate M.Tech program in different fields of biotechnology. As like other major institutes of India, admission in USBT is done strictly according to the merit based on ‘All India Common Entrance Test of GGSIPU’. Students with physics, chemistry, biology or biotechnology during senior school are eligible for entrance exam. Overwhelming demand of Biotechnology professionals, led to an increase in seats from 30 to 45 in the academic session 2006-07 and further in 2009-10.

USBT offers following programs:-

  • B.Tech./M.Tech. – 5 ½ Years for Integrated program
  • B.Tech. 4 Years program
  • Ph.D. – minimum 2 years

Savient Pharmaceuticals Inc



Mercedes-Benz (German: [mɛɐ̯ˈtseːdəsˌbɛnts, -dɛs-])[2][3] is a German global automobile marque and a division of Daimler AG. Mercedes-Benz is known for luxury vehicles, buses, coaches, ambulances and trucks. The headquarters is in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz was the biggest selling premium vehicle brand in the world, having sold 2.31 million passenger cars.[4]

Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft‘s 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz‘s 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, which is widely regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile. The slogan for the brand is “the best or nothing”.[5]


Karl Benz. Benz made the 1886 Benz Patent Motorwagen, which is widely regarded as the first automobile.

Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz‘s creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, financed by Bertha Benz[6] and patented in January 1886,[7] and Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach‘s conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine later that year. The Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft (Daimler Motors Corporation).

Emil Jellinek, a European automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG, created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek. Jellinek was a businessman and marketing strategist who promoted “horseless” Daimler automobiles among the highest circles of society in his adopted home, which, at that time, was a meeting place for the “Haute Volée” of France and Europe, especially in winter. His customers included the Rothschild family and other well-known personalities. But Jellinek’s plans went further: as early as 1901, he was selling Mercedes cars in the New World as well, including US billionaires Rockefeller, Astor, Morgan and Taylor. At a race in Nice in 1899, Jellinek drove under the pseudonym “Monsieur Mercédès”, a way of concealing the competitor’s real name as was normal and very regularly done in those days. The race ranks as the hour of birth of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In 1901, the name “Mercedes” was registered by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft (DMG) worldwide as a protected trademark.[8] The first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz’s and Gottlieb Daimler’s companies into the Daimler-Benz company on 28 June of the same year.[7][9]

Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf. After training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various technical activities in France and England, he started working as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he was appointed workshop inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen, where he met Wilhelm Maybach in 1865.[10]

Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car that was popular during Germany’s Nazi period. Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields.[11] Most of the surviving models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is currently on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario. The pontiff’s Popemobile has often been sourced from Mercedes-Benz.[12] In 1944, 46,000 forced labourers were used in Daimler-Benz’s factories to bolster Nazi war efforts. The company later paid $12 million in reparations to the labourers’ families.[13] Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that later became common in other vehicles.[14] Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world.

For information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, including the merger into Daimler-Benz.

Subsidiaries and alliances[edit]

As part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz and Smart car production.[15]


Mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999.[16] The company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999,[17] and became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999.[18]


Daimler’s ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes. It now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, such as the 2016 Mercedes-Maybach S600. In November 2019, the Mercedes-Maybach GLS 600 SUV debuted.[19]


Daimler cooperates with BYD Auto to make and sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China.[20] In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell Mercedes-Benz branded all-electric battery cars in China.[21]Beijing Benz is a joint venture with BAIC Group to produce Mercedes-Benz branded cars in China.[22] In 2018, Mercedes-Benz apologized for inciting controversy in China by quoting the Dalai Lama on an Instagram post.[23]



Beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are also manufactured or assembled in:

Sovereign state Continent Note
Algeria Africa Manufactures buses and trucks in cooperation with SNVI (Actros, Zetros, Unimog, and G-Class, Sprinter).
Argentina South America Manufactures buses, trucks, the Vito and the Sprinter van. This is the first Mercedes-Benz factory outside of Germany. Built in 1951.[24]
Australia Australia Various models were assembled at the Australian Motor Industries facility in Port Melbourne from 1959 to 1965.[25]
Austria Europe G-Class[26]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe
Brazil South America Manufactures trucks and buses. Established in 1956. The A-Class (W168) was produced from 1999 to 2005 and the C-Class was produced until 2010 as well.[27]
Canada North America Fuel cell plant in Burnaby, British Columbia, opened 2012.
Colombia South America Assembly of buses, Established in Soacha 2012 and Funza 2015
China Asia Beijing Benz
Egypt Africa Via Egyptian German Automotive Company E-Class, C-Class and GLK
Finland Europe Valmet Automotive, New A-series (W176) is manufactured in Uusikaupunki since late 2013, being the first M-B passenger car ever built in that country.
Hungary[28] Europe Manufacturing plant in Kecskemét, making B-class and CLA.
Jordan Asia Bus company factory, Elba House, Amman.
India Asia Bangalore (MBRDI), Pune (Passenger cars).[29] Chennai (Daimler India Commercial Vehicles Pvt. Ltd.) Buses, Trucks & Engine Manufacturing unit.
Indonesia[30] Asia / Australia Manufactures E250 Avantgarde and E300AMG E-class vehicles.
Iran [31] Asia
Malaysia Asia Assembly of C, E and S class vehicles by DRB-HICOM.
Mexico North America Mercedes-Benz Mexico fully manufactures some Mercedes and Daimler vehicles completely from locally built parts (C-Class, E-Class, M-Class, International trucks, Axor, Atego, and Mercedes Buses), manufactures other models in complete knock down kits (CL-Class, CLK-Class, SL-Class, SLK-Class) and manufactures a select number of models in semi knockdown kits which use both imported components and locally sourced Mexican components (S-Class, CLS-Class, R-Class, GL-Class, Sprinter).
Nigeria Africa Assembly of buses, trucks, utility motors and the Sprinter van[32]
Russia Eurasia Joint venture Mercedes-Benz Car Trucks Vostok in Naberezhnye Chelny (jointly Kamaz). Available in trucks Actros, Axor, multi-purpose auto four wheel drive medium trucks Unimog. Mercedes-Benz Sprinter Classic is also produced in Russia.
Serbia Europe FAP produces Mercedes-Benz trucks under license.
Spain Europe Factory at Vitoria-Gasteiz Mercedes-Benz Vito, Viano and V-Class have been built there.
South Africa[33] Africa The assembly plant is located in East London, in the Eastern Cape province, where both right and left hand versions of the C-class are built.
South Korea Asia Mercedes-Benz Musso and MB100; Ssangyong Rexton models manufactured by SsangYong Motor Company.
Taiwan Asia Assembly of Actros by the Shung Ye Group[34]
Thailand Asia Completely Knocked Down (CKD) production of C, E, S Classes and Semi-Knocked Down (SKD) production of CLA, GLA, C-coupe, C43 AMG, GLC, GLC-coupe, GLC-coupe 43 AMG, GLE and CLS.[35] It has been unofficially regarded as the largest Mercedes-Benz factory by number of class produced under one roof. The factory is operated by contract manufacture the Thonburi Group[36]
Turkey Eurasia Mercedes-Benz Türk A.Ş.[37]
United Kingdom Europe The SLR sports car was built at the McLaren Technology Centre in Woking. Brackley, Northamptonshire, is home to the Mercedes Grand Prix factory, and Brixworth, Northamptonshire is the location of Mercedes-Benz HighPerformanceEngines
United States North America The Mercedes-Benz GLE-Class Sport Utility, the full-sized GL-Class Luxury Sport Utility and the Mercedes-Benz C-Class vehicles are all built at the Mercedes-Benz U.S. International production facility near Tuscaloosa, Alabama.[38] Trucks (6,000 per year in the early eighties) were once assembled in Hampton, Virginia.[39]
Vietnam Asia Assembly of E-Class, C-Class, S-Class, GLK-Class and Sprinter. Established in 1995.[40]

Quality rankings[edit]

Mercedes-Benz dealer in Munich, Germany.

Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz has maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles, such as J. D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in these criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J. D. Power.[41] In J. D. Power’s Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place and earning several awards for its models.[42] For 2008, Mercedes-Benz’s initial quality rating improved by yet another mark, to fourth place.[43] On top of this accolade, it also received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant.[43] J. D. Power’s 2011 US Initial Quality and Vehicle Dependability Studies both ranked Mercedes-Benz vehicles above average in build quality and reliability.[44][45] In the 2011 UK J. D. Power Survey, Mercedes cars were rated above average.[46] A 2014 study for Reuters found Mercedes to have the lowest vehicle recall rate.[47]


Current model range[edit]

Mercedes-Benz offers a full range of passenger, light commercial and heavy commercial equipment. Vehicles are manufactured in multiple countries worldwide. The Smart marque of city cars are also produced by Daimler AG.



Mercedes-Benz produces a range of vans; Citan, Vito, and Sprinter


Mercedes-Benz Zetros used for snowplowing

Unimog, a famous allround vehicle by Mercedes-Benz

Mercedes-Benz Trucks is now part of the Daimler Trucks division, and includes companies that were part of the DaimlerChrysler merger. Gottlieb Daimler sold the world’s first truck in 1886.[48] The first factory to be built outside Germany after WWII was in Argentina. It originally built trucks, many of which were modified independently to buses, popularly named Colectivo. Today, it builds buses, trucks, the Vito and the Sprinter van.[citation needed]


Mercedes-Benz has been making buses since 1895 in Mannheim in Germany. Since 1995, the brand of Mercedes-Benz buses and coaches is under the umbrella of EvoBus GmbH, belonging 100% to the Daimler AG. Mercedes-Benz produces a wide range of buses and coaches, mainly for Europe and Asia. The first model was produced by Karl Benz in 1895.[49]

A STRAN Citaro (second generation) in June 2014

Significant models produced[edit]

The Mercedes-Benz 600 or 600S Pullman Guard limousines offer the option of armour-plating and have been used by diplomats worldwide.[50]

Car nomenclature[edit]

Until 1994, Mercedes-Benz utilized an alphanumeric system for categorizing their vehicles, consisting of a number sequence approximately equal to the engine’s displacement in liters multiplied by 100, followed by an arrangement of alphabetical suffixes, indicating body style and engine type.

  • “C” indicates a coupe or cabriolet body style (for example, the CL and CLK models, though the C-Class is an exception, since it is also available as a sedan or station wagon).
  • “D” indicates the vehicle is equipped with a diesel engine.
  • “E” (for “Einspritzung”) indicates the vehicle’s engine is equipped with a petrol fuel injection. Also used for electric models and plug-in hybrids.
  • “G” was originally used for the Geländewagen off-road vehicle, but is now applied to Mercedes SUVs in general (G, GLA, GLC, GLE and GLS).
  • “K” was used in the 1930s, indicating a supercharger (“Kompressor”) equipped engine. Three exceptions : the SLK, SSK and CLK, where K indicates “Kurz” (short-wheelbase) (though the SSK had a supercharger).
  • “L” indicates “Leicht” (lightweight) for sporting models, and “Lang” (long-wheelbase) for sedan models.
  • “R” indicates “Rennen” (racing), used for racing cars (for example, the 300SLR).
  • “S” Sonderklasse “Special class” for flagship models, including the S-Class, and the SL-Class, SLR McLaren and SLS sports cars.
  • “T” indicates “Touring” and an estate (or station wagon) body style.

Some models in the 1950s also had lower-case letters (b, c, and d) to indicate specific trim levels. For other models, the numeric part of the designation does not match the engine displacement. This was done to show the model’s position in the model range independent of displacement or in the price matrix. For these vehicles, the actual displacement in litres is suffixed to the model designation. An exception was the 190-class with the numeric designation of “190” as to denote its entry level in the model along with the displacement label on the right side of the boot (190E 2.3 for 2.3-litre 4-cylinder petrol motor, 190D 2.5 for 2.5-litre 5-cylinder diesel motor, and so forth). Some older models (such as the SS and SSK) did not have a number as part of the designation at all.

For the 1994 model year, Mercedes-Benz revised the naming system. Models were divided into “classes” denoted by an arrangement of up to three letters (see “Current model range” above), followed by a three-digit (or two-digit for AMG models, with the number approximately equal to the displacement in litres multiplied by 10) number related to the engine displacement as before. Variants of the same model such as an estate version or a vehicle with a diesel engine are no longer given a separate letter. The SLR and SLS supercars do not carry a numerical designation.

Today, many numerical designations no longer reflect the engine’s actual displacement, but more of the relative performance and marketing position. Despite its engine displacement in two litres, the powerplant in the A45 AMG produces 355 brake horsepower so the designation is higher as to indicate the greater performance. Another example is the E250 CGI having greater performance than the E200 CGI due to the different engine tuning even though both have 1.8-litre engines. From the marketing perspective, E200 seems more “upscale” than E180. Recent AMG models use the “63” designation (in honor of the 1960s 6.3-litre M100 engine) despite being equipped with either a 6.2-litre (M156), a 5.5-litre (M157) or even a 4.0-litre engine.

Some models carry further designations indicating special features:

  • 4MATIC” indicates the vehicle is equipped with all-wheel-drive.
  • BlueTEC” indicates a diesel engine with selective catalytic reduction exhaust aftertreatment.
  • “BlueEFFICIENCY” indicates special fuel economy features (direct injection, start-stop system, aerodynamic modifications, etc.)
  • “CGI” (Charged Gasoline Injection) indicates direct gasoline injection.
  • “CDI” (Common-rail Direct Injection) indicates a common-rail diesel engine.
  • “Hybrid” indicates a petrol- or diesel-electric hybrid.
  • “NGT” indicates a natural gas-fueled engine.
  • “Kompressor” indicates a supercharged engine.
  • “Turbo” indicates a turbocharged engine, only used on A-, B-,E- and GLK-Class models.
  • “AMG Line” indicates the interior or engine, depending which car, has been fitted with the luxuries of their AMG sports cars

Model designation badges can be removed at the request of the customer.

2015 and beyond[edit]

Rationalisation of the model nomenclature was announced in November 2014 for future models.[51][52] The changes consolidate many confusing nomenclature and their placements in the model range such as CL-Class is now called the S-Class Coupé. The naming structure is divided into four categories: core, off-road vehicle/SUV, 4-door coupé, and roadster. AMG GT, and V-Class are unaffected by the change. In October 2016, Mercedes unveiled the X-Class; a pickup truck built on the Nissan Navara.[53][54] At the 2016 Paris Motor Show, the company announced the EQ, a family of upcoming battery electric vehicles based on a modular platform, expected to represent up to 25% of its global sales by 2025.[55]

Core Off-Road Vehicles/SUV 4-Door Coupé Roadster

Note: The CLA is positioned between the A- and B-Class models, while the CLS sits between the E- and S-Classes.

In addition to the revised nomenclature, Mercedes-Benz has new nomenclature for the drive systems.

Current New Example
Natural Gas Drive c for “compressed natural gas” B 200 c


d for “diesel” E 350 d

GLA 200 d


Electric Drive

e for “electric” S 500 e

B 250 e

Fuel Cell f for “fuel cell” B 200 f


h for “hybrid” S 400 h

E 300 h


The revised A45 AMG for 2016 model year on has shifted the model designation to the right side while AMG is on the left side.[56] This trend commenced with Mercedes-Maybach with MAYBACH on the left and S500/S600 on the right.[57]

Environmental record[edit]

Mercedes-Benz has developed multi-concept cars with alternative propulsion, such as hybrid-electric, fully electric, and fuel-cell powertrains. At the 2007 Frankfurt motor show, Mercedes-Benz showed seven hybrid models, including the F700 concept car, powered by a hybrid-electric drivetrain featuring the DiesOtto engine.[58] In 2009, Mercedes-Benz displayed three BlueZERO concepts at the North American International Auto Show. Each car features a different powertrain – battery-electric, fuel-cell electric, and gasoline-electric hybrid.[59][60] In the same year, Mercedes also showed the Vision S500 PHEV concept with a 19 miles (31 km) all-electric range and CO
of 74 grams/km in the New European Driving Cycle.[61]

Since 2002, Mercedes-Benz has developed the F-Cell fuel cell vehicle. The current version, based on the B-Class, has a 250-mile range and is available for lease, with volume production scheduled to begin in 2014. Mercedes has also announced the SLS AMG E-Cell, a fully electric version of the SLS sports car, with deliveries expected in 2013.[62] The Mercedes-Benz S400 BlueHYBRID[63] was launched in 2009, and is the first production automotive hybrid in the world to use a lithium-ion battery.[64][65][66] In mid-2010, production commenced on the Vito E-Cell all-electric van. Mercedes expects 100 vehicles to be produced by the end of 2010 and a further 2000 by the end of 2011.[67]

In 2008, Mercedes-Benz announced that it would have a demonstration fleet of small electric cars in two to three years.[68] Mercedes-Benz and Smart are preparing for the widespread uptake of electric vehicles (EVs) in the UK by beginning the installation of recharging points across their dealer networks. So far 20 Elektrobay recharging units, produced in the UK by Brighton-based Elektromotive, have been installed at seven locations as part of a pilot project, and further expansion of the initiative is planned later in 2010.[69]

In the United States, Mercedes-Benz was assessed a record US$30.66 million fine for their decision to not meet the federal corporate average fuel economy standard in 2009.[70] Certain Mercedes-Benz cars, including the S550 and all AMG models sold in the United States, also face an additional gas guzzler tax.[71] However, newer AMG models fitted with the M157 engine will not be subject to the gas-guzzler tax, due to improved fuel economy,[72] and newer models powered by the M276 and M278 engines will have better fuel economy. In 2008, Mercedes also had the worst CO
average of all major European manufacturers, ranking 14th out of 14 manufacturers.[73] Mercedes was also the worst manufacturer in 2007 and 2006 in terms of average CO
levels, with 181 g and 188 g of CO
emitted per km, respectively.[74]

Mercedes-Benz paid an additional US$38 million for failing to meet its CAFE standards for model years 2008–2011.[75]

In May 2017, Mercedes partnered with Vivint Solar to develop a solar-energy home storage battery.[76]

In February 2018, it was announced that Mercedes cabin air filters earned the Asthma and Allergy Friendly Certification.[77]

Electric cars[edit]

Mercedes is to open its sixth battery factory in 2018, which makes it a tough competitor to Tesla, Inc. The six factories will be established across 3 continents.

Mercedes-Benz EQC

The brand has also planned to launch its electric EQ brand with the EQC SUV being set for production in the year 2019. In September 2018, Mercedes unveiled the EQC, its first fully electric car, at an event in Stockholm.[78][79]

2022 will be the year in which Daimler has said that the company will have invested $11 billion to ensure that every Mercedes-Benz has a fully electric or hybrid version available on the market.[80]

While releasing details of the project, Markus Schäfer said,

“Our electric vehicles will be built in six plants on three continents. We address every market segment: from the smart fortwo seater, to the large SUV. The battery is the key component of e-mobility. As batteries are the heart of our electric vehicles we put a great emphasis on building them in our own factories. With our global battery network we are in an excellent position: As we are close to our vehicle plants we can ensure the optimal supply of production. In case of a short-term high demand in another part of the world our battery factories are also well prepared for export. The electric initiative of Mercedes-Benz Cars is right on track. Our global production network is ready for e-mobility. We are electrifying the future.”[81] After Audi declared that it would cut more than 9,000 jobs by 2025, the owner of Mercedes-Benz announced that the company will shed around 10,000 jobs worldwide to focus on electric cars.[82]


The two companies which were merged to form the Mercedes-Benz brand in 1926 had both already enjoyed success in the new sport of motor racing throughout their separate histories. A single Benz competed in the world’s first motor race, the 1894 Paris–Rouen, where Émile Roger finished 14th in 10 hours 1 minute. Throughout its long history, the company has been involved in a range of motorsport activities, including sports car racing and rallying. On several occasions Mercedes-Benz has withdrawn completely from motorsport for a significant period, notably in the late 1930s, and after the 1955 Le Mans disaster, where a Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR rammed another car (An Austin-Healey), took off into the stands, and killed more than 80 spectators. Stirling Moss and co-driver Denis Jenkinson made history by winning the 1955 Mille Miglia road race in Italy during a record-breaking drive with an average speed of almost 98 mph in a Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR.[83]

Although there was some activity in the intervening years, it was not until 1987 that Mercedes-Benz returned to front line competition, returning to Le Mans, Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft (DTM), and Formula One with Sauber. The 1990s saw Mercedes-Benz purchase British engine builder Ilmor (now Mercedes-Benz High Performance Engines), and campaign IndyCars under the USAC/CART rules, eventually winning the 1994 Indianapolis 500 and 1994 CART IndyCar World Series Championship with Al Unser, Jr. at the wheel. The 1990s also saw the return of Mercedes-Benz to GT racing, and the Mercedes-Benz CLK GTR, both of which took the company to new heights by dominating the FIA’s GT1 class.

Mercedes-Benz is currently active in four motorsport categories, Formula Three, DTM, Formula One and GT3.

Formula One[edit]

Both Mercedes-AMG Formula One cars at the 2013 Malaysian Grand Prix.

Mercedes-Benz took part in the world championship in 1954 and 1955, but despite being successful with two championship titles for Juan-Manuel Fangio,[84] the company left the sport after just two seasons.

Mercedes-Benz returned as an engine supplier in the 1990s and part-owned Team McLaren for some years, to which it has supplied engines engineered by Ilmor[85] since 1995. This partnership brought success, including drivers championships for Mika Häkkinen in 1998 and 1999, and for Lewis Hamilton in 2008, as well as a constructors championship in 1998. The collaboration with McLaren had been extended into the production of road-going cars such as the Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren.

In 2007, McLaren-Mercedes was fined a record US$100 million for stealing confidential Ferrari technical data.[86]

In 2009, Ross Brawn‘s newly conceived Formula One team, Brawn GP used Mercedes engines to help win the constructor’s championship, and Jenson Button to become champion in the F1 drivers’ championship. At the end of the season, Mercedes-Benz sold its 40% stake in McLaren to the McLaren Group and bought 70% of the Brawn GP team jointly with an Abu Dhabi-based investment consortium. Brawn GP was renamed Mercedes GP for the 2010 season and is, from this season on, a works team for Mercedes-Benz. As of 2017, the company currently provides engines to Williams Martini Racing and Sahara Force India F1 Team.[87]

In 2014, Mercedes clinched its first Formula One Constructor’s title with drivers Lewis Hamilton and Nico Rosberg with three races to go, after dominating much of the season. Mercedes repeated its dominance in 2015, winning 16 out of 19 races, and again in 2016, winning 19 of the 21 races. In the next three years, Mercedes continued their success by winning Constructors’ Championships in 2017, 2018 and 2019 for a total of six consecutive titles.[88] In these six years, Hamilton won the Formula One Drivers’ Championship in 2014, 2015, 2017, 2018 and 2019 while Rosberg won in 2016.[89] Mercedes has won both the Constructors’ and Drivers’ Championships for every year from 2014 to 2019. They are the only Formula One team to ever win six consecutive “double-championships”.[88][89]

Logo history[edit]

In June 1909, Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft (DMG) registered both a three-pointed and a four-pointed star as trademarks, but only the three-pointed star was used. To DMG, the star symbolized Gottlieb Daimler’s aims for universal motorization: on land, water and in the air.[90]

Noted employees[edit]


Numerous technological innovations have been introduced on Mercedes-Benz automobiles throughout the many years of their production, including:

  • The internal combustion engine automobile was developed independently by Benz and Daimler & Maybach in 1886
  • Daimler invented the honeycomb radiator of the type still used on all water-cooled vehicles today
  • Daimler invented the float carburetor which was used until replaced by fuel injection
  • The “drop chassis” – the car originally designated the “Mercedes” by Daimler was also the first car with a modern configuration, having the carriage lowered and set between the front and rear wheels, with a front engine and powered rear wheels. All earlier cars were “horseless carriages”, which had high centres of gravity and various engine/drive-train configurations
  • The first passenger road car to have brakes on all four wheels (1924)[98]
  • In 1936, the Mercedes-Benz 260 D was the first diesel-powered passenger car.
  • Mercedes-Benz were the first to offer direct fuel injection on the Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing
  • The “safety cage” or “safety cell” construction with front and rear crumple zones was first developed by Mercedes-Benz in 1951. This is considered by many as the most important innovation in automobile construction from a safety standpoint[14][verification needed]
  • In 1959, Mercedes-Benz patented a device that prevents drive wheels from spinning by intervening at the engine, transmission, or brakes. In 1987, Mercedes-Benz applied its patent by introducing a traction control system that worked under both braking and acceleration
  • an Anti-Lock Brake system (ABS) was first offered on the W116 450SEL 6.9. They became standard on the W126 S-Class starting production in 1979 and first sold in most markets in 1980.
  • Airbags were first introduced in the European market, beginning with model year 1981 S-Class.
  • Mercedes-Benz was the first to introduce pre-tensioners to seat belts on the 1981 S-Class. In the event of a crash, a pre-tensioner will tighten the belt instantaneously, removing any ‘slack’ in the belt, which prevents the occupant from jerking forward in a crash
  • In September 2003, Mercedes-Benz introduced the world’s first seven-speed automatic transmission called ‘7G-Tronic
  • Electronic Stability Programme (ESP), brake assist,[99] and many other types of safety equipment were all developed, tested, and implemented into passenger cars – first – by Mercedes-Benz. Mercedes-Benz has not made a large fuss about its innovations, and has even licensed them for use by competitors – in the name of improving automobile and passenger safety. As a result, crumple zones and anti-lock brakes (ABS) are now standard on all modern vehicles.[14][verification needed]

Mercedes M156 engine

  • The (W211) E320 CDI which has a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) 3.0-litre V6 common rail diesel engine (producing 224 hp or 167 kW), set three world endurance records. It covered 100,000 miles (160,000 km) in a record time, with an average speed of 224.823 km/h (139.70 mph). Three identical cars did the endurance run (one set above record) and the other two cars set world records for time taken to cover 100,000 kilometres (62,137 mi) and 50,000 miles (80,000 km) respectively. After all three cars had completed the run, their combined distance was 300,000 miles (480,000 km) (all records were FIA approved).[100][clarification needed]
  • Mercedes-Benz pioneered a system called Pre-Safe to detect an imminent crash – and prepares the car’s safety systems to respond optimally. It also calculates the optimal braking force required to avoid an accident in emergency situations, and makes it immediately available for when the driver depresses the brake pedal. Occupants are also prepared by tightening the seat belt, closing the sunroof and windows, and moving the seats into the optimal position.
  • At 181 horsepower per litre, the M133 engine installed in Mercedes-Benz A45 AMG is the most powerful series production four-cylinder turbocharged motor (as of June 2013) and has one of the highest power density for a passenger vehicle.[101]

Half a century of vehicle safety innovation helped win Mercedes-Benz the Safety Award at the 2007 What Car? Awards.[98]

Robot cars[edit]

In the 1980s, Mercedes built the world’s first robot car, together with the team of Professor Ernst Dickmanns at Bundeswehr University Munich.[102] Encouraged in part by Dickmanns’ success, in 1987 the European Union’s EUREKA programme initiated the Prometheus Project on autonomous vehicles, funded to the tune of nearly €800 million. In 1995 Dickmanns’ re-engineered autonomous S-Class Mercedes took a long trip from Munich in Bavaria to Copenhagen in Denmark, and back. On highways, the robot achieved speeds exceeding 175 km/h (109 mph) (permissible in some areas of the German Autobahn).

In October 2015, the company introduced the Vision Tokyo, a five-seat self-driving electric van powered by a hybrid hydrogen fuel-cell system. The super-sleek van is touted as “a chill-out zone in the midst of megacity traffic mayhem.” [103]


Several companies have become car tuners (or modifiers) of Mercedes Benz, in order to increase performance and/or luxury to a given model.
AMG is Mercedes-Benz’s in-house performance-tuning division, specialising in high-performance versions of most Mercedes-Benz cars. AMG engines are all hand-built,[104] and each completed engine receives a tag with the signature of the engineer who built it. AMG has been wholly owned by Mercedes-Benz since 1999.[105] The 2009 SLS AMG, a revival of the 300SL Gullwing, is the first car to be entirely developed by AMG.


Mercedes-Benz sponsors the German national football team.

In football (soccer), Mercedes-Benz sponsors the Germany national team until 2018. Mercedes-Benz sponsors Bundesliga club VfB Stuttgart and provides the naming rights for their stadium, the Mercedes-Benz Arena. The company also holds the naming rights to the Mercedes-Benz Superdome, an American football stadium in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States.[106] On 24 August 2015, Mercedes-Benz was announced as the naming rights sponsor for the Atlanta Falcons‘ new home, Mercedes-Benz Stadium, (Mercedes-Benz’s US headquarters are in Greater Atlanta) which opened in August 2017.[107]

Mercedes-Benz worked with English magician Steven Frayne, also known as Dynamo, to create a video called Dynamo vs Coulthard.[108]Formula One driver David Coulthard drove Dynamo around a track at race-speed in a Mercedes-Benz SL63 AMG, before Dynamo successfully drove around the same track in the same car whilst blindfolded and surrounded by pyrotechnics.[109] The stunt was part of the finale for Series 3 of Dynamo: Magician Impossible, screened on UK television channel Watch.





KAIST (formally the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology) is a national research university located in Daedeok Innopolis, Daejeon, South Korea. KAIST was established by the Korean government in 1971 as the nation’s first research-oriented science and engineering institution.[2] KAIST also has been internationally accredited in business education,[3] and hosting the Secretariat of AAPBS.[4] KAIST has approximately 10,200 full-time students and 1,140 faculty researchers and had a total budget of US$765 million in 2013, of which US$459 million was from research contracts.

From 1980 to 2008, the institute was known as the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. In 2008, the name was shortened to “KAIST”.

In 2007, KAIST partnered with international institutions and adopted dual degree programs for its students. Its partner institutions include the Technical University of Denmark,[5]Carnegie Mellon University,[6] the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech),[7] the Technical University of Berlin,[8] and the Technical University of Munich.[9]


Korean representatives and Frederick E. Terman discuss the establishment of the institute.

The institute was founded in 1971 as the Korea Advanced Institute of Science (KAIS) by a loan of US$6 million (US$34 million[10] 2014) from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and supported by President Park Chung-Hee.[2] The institute’s academic scheme was mainly designed by Frederick E. Terman, vice president of Stanford University, and Chung Geum-mo, a professor at the Polytechnic Institution of Brooklyn.[11] The institute’s two main functions were to train advanced scientists and engineers and develop a structure of graduate education in the country. Research studies began by 1973 and undergraduates studied for bachelor’s degrees by 1984.

In 1981 the government merged the Korean Advanced Institute of Science and the Korean Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) to form the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, or KAIST. Due to differing research philosophies, KIST and KAIST split in 1989. In the same year KAIST and the Korea Institute of Technology (KIT) combined and moved from Seoul to the Daedeok Science Town in Daejeon.
The first act of President Suh upon his inauguration in July 2006 was to lay out the KAIST Development Plan. The ‘KAIST Development Five-Year Plan’ was finalized on February 5, 2007 by KAIST Steering Committee. The goals of KAIST set by Suh were to become one of the best science and technology universities in the world, and to become one of the top-10 universities by 2011. In January 2008, the university dropped its full name, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, and changed its official name to only KAIST.[12]


February 16, 1971 Korea Advanced Institute of Science (KAIS), Hongneung Campus, Seoul is established
March 5, 1973 Candidates matriculate for master’s degree
August 20, 1975 First commencement for the master’s program
September 12, 1975 Candidates matriculate for doctorate degree
August 19, 1978 First commencement for the doctoral program
December 31, 1980 Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) is formed by merger with KIST
December 27, 1984 Korea Institute of Technology (KIT) is established in Daejeon, South Korea
March 28, 1986 First matriculation for undergraduates
June 12, 1989 KAIST and KIST separate, KAIST retains institution name
July 4, 1989 KAIST merges with KIT, relocates to Daejeon
December 17, 1990 First commencement for bachelor’s degree students
October 1, 1996 Establishes Korea Institute of Advanced Study (KIAS)
May 4, 2004 Founds National Nanofab Center (NNFC)
January 1, 2008 Officially changes name to KAIST, replacing the spelled-out name
March 1, 2009 Acquires Information and Communications University (ICU), renaming it KAIST Information Technology Convergence Campus



A statue of Jang Young Sil, a Korean scientist, in front of science library, Daejeon campus

Admission to KAIST is based on overall grades, grades on math and science courses, recommendation letters from teachers, study plan, personal statements, and other data that show the excellence of potential students, and does not rely on a standardized test conducted by the university. In 2014, the acceptance rate for local students was 14.9%, and for international students at 13.2%.[13]

Full scholarships are given to all students including international students in the bachelor, master and doctorate courses.[14] Doctoral students are given military-exemption benefits from South Korea’s compulsory military service. Up to 80% of courses taught in KAIST are conducted in English.

Undergraduate students can join the school through an “open major system” that allows students to take classes for three terms and then choose a discipline that suits their aptitude, and undergraduates are allowed to change their major anytime. KAIST has also produced many doctorates through the integrated master’s and doctoral program and early-completion system. Students must publish papers in internationally renowned academic journals for graduation.[15]


KAIST produced a total of 48,398 alumni from 1975 to 2014, with 13,743 bachelor’s, 24,776 master’s, and 9,879 doctorate degree holders. As of October 2015, 11,354 students were enrolled in KAIST with 4,469 bachelor’s, 3,091 master’s, and 3,794 doctoral students.[16] More than 70 percent of KAIST undergraduates come from specialized science high schools.[citation needed] On average, about 600 international students from more than 70 different countries come to study at KAIST, making KAIST one of the most ethnically diverse universities in the country.


KAIST is organized into 6 colleges, 2 schools and 33 departments/divisions.

KAIST also has three affiliated institutes including the Korea Institute of Advanced Study (KIAS), National NanoFab Center (NNFC), and Korea Science Academy (KSA).[17]


A view of the main campus

KAIST Main Library

KAIST has two campuses in Daejeon and one campus in Seoul. The university is mainly located in the Daedeok Science Town in the city of Daejeon, 150 kilometers south of the capital Seoul. Daedeok is also home to some 50 public and private research institutes, universities such as CNU and high-tech venture capital companies.

Most lectures, research activities, and housing services are located in the Daejeon main campus. It has a total of 29 dormitories. Twenty-three dormitories for male students and four dormitories for female students are located on the outskirts of the campus, and two apartments for married students are located outside the campus.

The Seoul campus is the home of the Business Faculty of the university. The graduate schools of finance, management and information & media management are located there. The total area of the Seoul campus is 413,346 m2 (4,449,220 sq ft).

The Munji campus, the former campus of Information and Communications University until its merger with KAIST, is located ca. 4 km (2.5 mi) away from the main campus. It has a total of two dormitories, one for undergraduate students and the other for graduate students. The Institute for Basic Science (IBS) Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research is located here doing particle and nuclear physics related to dark matter and the Rare Isotope Science Project has the Superconducting Radio Frequency test facility.

Main library

The KAIST main library was established in 1971 as KAIS library, and it went through a merge and separation process with KIST library. It merged with KIT in March 1990. A contemporary 5 story building was constructed as the main library, and it is being operated with an annex library. The library uses the American LC Classification Schedule.[18]

The library underwent expansion and remodeling, which finished in 2018, to include conference rooms, collaboration rooms, and media rooms.


KAIST’s Seokrim Taeulje is a festival held by KAIST for three days every spring semester. The festival preparation committee under the undergraduate student council will be in charge of planning and execution, various food booths and experience booths will be opened, and stage events such as club performances and a song festival will be held. Also called the Cherry Blossom Festival, students eat strawberries on the lawn.[1]


Seven KAIST Institutes (KIs) have been set up: the KI for the BioCentury, the KI for Information Technology Convergence, the KI for the Design of Complex Systems, the KI for Entertainment Engineering, the KI for the NanoCentury, the KI for Eco-Energy, and the KI for Urban Space and Systems. Each KI is operated as an independent research center at the level of a college, receiving support in terms of finance and facilities. In terms of ownership of intellectual property rights, KAIST holds 2,694 domestic patents and 723 international patents so far.[19]

Electric vehicles

Researchers at KAIST have developed the Online Electric Vehicle (OLEV), a technique of powering vehicles through cables underneath the surface of the road via non-contact magnetic charging (a power source is placed underneath the road surface and power is wirelessly picked up on the vehicle itself). In July 2009 the researchers successfully supplied up to 60% power to a bus over a gap of 12 cm (4.7 in) from a power line embedded in the ground using power supply and pick up technology developed in-house.[20]

Autonomous arms

In February 2018 the Korea Times published an article which stated that KAIST was starting an AI weapons research project together with the Korean arms manufacturer Hanwa. The allegations were of developing lethal autonomous weapons with Hanwa. This has led to researchers from 30 countries boycotting KAIST, which has denied existence of the program.[21]

Academic rankings

In 2016 and 2017[34]Thomson Reuters named KAIST the sixth most innovative university in the world and the most innovative university in the Asia Pacific region.[35] In 2016/17 QS World University Rankings ranked KAIST 46th overall in the world and 6th within Asia, coming 13th in Material Sciences and 14th in Engineering and Technology.[36] In the 2009 THE-QS World University Rankings (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings) for Engineering & IT, the University was placed 21st in the world and 1st in Korea[37] and was placed 69th overall.[38] KAIST was again recognized as a number one University in Korea by JoongAng Ilbo Review. In the year of 2009, KAIST’s department of industrial design has also been listed in the top 30 Design Schools by Business Week.[39] KAIST ranked the best university in Republic of Korea and the 7th university in Asia in the Top 100 Asian Universities list, the first regional ranking issued by THE-QS World Rankings.[40][verification needed]

Times Higher Education ranked KAIST the 3rd best university in the world under the age of 50 years in its 2015 league table.[42]

Notable faculty and staff

Notable alumni


Science and technology



Notes and references

  • The Times-QS World University Rankings 2009 – KAIST 69th overall, 21st in the field of Engineering/Technology

Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology

KIIT Convention centre

Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT), formerly KIIT University, is a private institute deemed to be university located in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. The institution offers undergraduate and post-graduate courses in engineering, bio-technology, medicine, management, law, computer application, rural management, fashion, film studies, journalism, architecture and sculpting. It was recognised as an Institute of Eminence in 2019.


KIIT was established in 1992 as an Industrial Training Institute with only twelve students and two faculty.[1] This institution was the brainchild of Achyuta Samanta, C R Mishra, P K Mishra who had envisioned a profound center of learning in India and so pursued to lay the foundation of KIIT. In 1997, the School of Technology and the School of Computer Application was established. In 2004 it was conferred the status of deemed university and renamed KIIT University.[2]

The KIIT School of Biotechnology, School of Rural Management, School of Medicine and KIIT Law School were started in 2007.[3] In 2009, five new schools, School of Mass Communication, School of Fashion Technology, School of Film Studies, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management and School of Sculpture were established. However, later the School of Mass Communication and School of Film Studies were merged to form School of Film and Media Studies, while School of Sculpture was renamed as School of Fine Arts and the School of Tourism and Hospitality Management was discontinued. Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences and Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences came under the ambit of KIIT in August 2009. In 2013, three new schools were established  — School of Architecture, School of Leadership and School of Sports. In 2015, 3 more schools were added – School of Public Health, School of Chemical Technology and School of Yoga and Spiritualism.

In 2017, the institute was renamed back Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, following a request from all institutes deemed to be universities not to use “university” in their title.[4] In 2019, KIIT was recognised as an Institute of Eminence by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD).[5]


KIIT has 27000 students.[1][6] Each academic program is functioning in different independent campuses.


KIIT was accredited by National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) with an A grade with a score of 3.48 out of 4 points.[7] KIIT is a member of Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU).[8]


Internationally, KIIT was ranked in the 291-300 band in the QS University Rankings BRICS University Rankings of 2019.[9] In India, it was ranked 48 among engineering colleges by the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) in 2019,[12] 31 among all universities[11] and 50 overall.[10] NIRF also ranked it 30 in the management ranking,[15] 30 in medical ranking[13] and 12 in law ranking[14].


KIIT School of Technology 1st year block

KIIT offers 100 programmes in the following schools:[16]

  • Schools of Technology
  • School of Computer Application (KSCA)
  • School of Civil Engineering
  • School of Mechanical Engineering
  • School of Electrical Engineering
  • School of Computer Engineering
  • School of Chemical Technology
  • School of Electronics Engineering
  • School of Biotechnology
  • Management
  • Medicine
  • Other schools
  • School of Film & Media Sciences
  • School of Fashion Technology
  • School of Fine Art
  • School of Leadership
  • School of Humanities and Social Sciences
  • KIIT School of Languages, established in 2007
  • School of Applied Sciences
  • School of Public Health
  • KIIT School of Mass Communication
  • KIIT School of Law
  • School of Yoga & Spiritualism
  • School of Sports
  • School of Architecture & Planning
  • School of Buddhist Studies

Research and development

KIIT has a Research and Development wing headed by a Director along with other qualified faculty members who collaborate with various Research Organizations. Thrust of the R & D Wing of KIIT is interdisciplinary research through multidisciplinary interactions. The vision is to unleash creative thinking and enable KIIT to become a well-known technological institute for research and development as well as for post-graduate education and doctoral research. Faculty members (spearheaded by Udai P. Singh) are currently pursuing research funded by organizations, such as, the Department of Science and Technology (DST), the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). Industry Institute interactions are also being strengthened through various funded schemes sponsored by AICTE, UGC and DSIR. In this context, a large number of MoUs have been signed with leading research organizations of the country and abroad for facilitating collaborative research and other academic activities. Currently offered in four broad areas, technology, biotechnology, management and humanities, the college has instituted 48 doctoral fellowships. The R & D wing has been actively supporting various National and International conferences hosted by the institute like International Conference on Emerging Technology and International Conference on Distributed Computing & Internet Technology.[20] The wing actively collaborates with various educational, scientific, research and industrial organizations and has informal collaboration with faculty members of all IITs and corporate houses for specific problem and objectives. It has MoUs with organizations of repute in India and abroad for collaborative action.[21] KIIT has also established a Centre for Innovation and Entrepreneurship to provide technical knowledge and facilities for starting technology driven enterprises as well as doing research for producing cost-effective techniques.[22]

In 2012, the Institution had organized the 99th Indian Science Congress.[23]

Admission and scholarships

Admission to undergraduate and postgraduate programs are primarily done through the institute’s entrance examination KIITEE (KIIT Entrance Examination). Admission to the M.Tech program are also granted through GATE.[24] Students are admitted to the law school through a written all India common test known as KLSAT (KIIT Law School Admission Test). For the newly introduced courses of fashion, film studies, journalism and sculpturing the admission will be done on the basis of merit of previous qualifying examinations and additional experiences related to the concerned disciplines.[24]

The Institute also grants scholarships to meritorious and needy students every year. Among them, Pradyumna Bal Memorial Scholarship is awarded to two economically challenged but meritorious students and they are provided completely free education along with ancillary expenses.[25]

Campus and facilities

The institute is in twelve landscaped and eco-friendly campuses of 700 acres (2.8 km2) in the temple city of Bhubaneswar.[26]

Central library of the institute

Each of the campuses is named after a river of India. The classrooms are air conditioned and have state-of-the-art modern educational equipment like wireless LCD projectors to teach the students in a friendly manner.All the campuses have Wifi connection for easy access to the internet. The institute has a central library consisting more than 141,819 books and journals on various topics and also have access to several renowned web libraries and journals.[27] Services provided to the users include, Current Awareness Service (CAS), Reference Service, Documentation Service, Reprographic Service, Digital Library and Web Library. Apart from the central library, every schools maintains its own library for assisting the students and teachers.

100ft Flag inaugurated by Naveen Jindal in KIIT Campus on 68th Republic day.

Separate hostel facilities are available for boys and girls with modern amenities and 24 hours internet connectivity. The canteens serves hygienic Indian and continental dishes to the students. The cafeterias within the campus offers snacks, soft drinks and beverages. Students can practice several sports like basketball, lawn tennis, hockey and cricket. Biju Patnaik Indoor Stadium, established by KIIT, is one of the biggest indoor stadiums in the state next to Jawaharlal Nehru Indoor Stadium at Cuttack. It provides facility for all indoor games, including an air-conditioned billiards room. Twelve station Multi-gym, Billiards, Table Tennis, Badminton, Chess and Carom are the main attractions of the indoor stadium. Students and staff avail round the clock medical attention from Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, the medical wing of KIIT which constitute a 1200 bedded hospital with ambulances and out patient department in case of need. KIIT also has buses, shuttle cars to meet the transportation need of the students and staffs. An in-house computerized Post Office is functioning from the Campus. All postal stationeries along with Speed Post facility are available at the post office. Banking services along with 24 hours ATM are available of Allahabad Bank, ICICI Bank, Punjab National Bank, Oriental Bank of Commerce, United Bank of India and State Bank of India to the students. A computerized railway ticket counter is operational from within the campus.[28]Big Bazaar(super market)and Monginis (bakery) are very close to the campus. Along with it for refreshment of students a Cafe Coffee Day outlet is also present inside the campus.
For 2016 graduating batch students, there were 3800 job offers and more than 2200 students got placed on day one .

Student life

KIIT provides on-campus residential facilities to its students, research scholars, faculty members and many of its staff. The students live in hostels throughout their stay in the KIIT, though its optional. There are in total 17 different hostels out of which six are for girls and rest are for boys.[citation needed]

There are different societies in KIIT to choose from according to the interest and choice of the student. Some of the major societies of the college are Qutopia, the Quiz society; Kronicle, the Literary Society, the Social Responsibility Cell and Korus, the Music Society. Students from Kronicle have made no marks at various National and International Level students. Social Responsibility Cell aims at inculcating a sense of social responsibility in the hearts and minds of all the students. The quiz society Qutopia[29] organizes a national level quiz competition, Udghosh every year.[30] The decenary edition of Udghosh was hosted by Vikram Joshi, winner of World Quizzing Championship. It also conducts an Intra-University Quiz competition “Launchpad” every year as a part of induction program. Qutopia is very well known in quizzing circles throughout the country and has produced quizzers who have not only conquered state and regional level quizzes, but also at national and international level, including the prestigious Tata Crucible Campus Quiz,[31] which is hosted by ace quizmaster Giri Balasubramanium, along with other high-profile quizzes like Debasish Das Memorial (DDM) IT Quiz,[32][33][34] Sweden India Nobel Memorial Quiz,[35][36] and Mahindra AQ.[37]

The KIIT chapter of Society for Promotion of Indian Classical Music And Culture Amongst Youth (SPICMACAY) established in 2003, promotes classical Indian music, dance, and culture among youth and have organised numerous musical concerts. Students can also join National Cadet Corps (NCC) and National Service Scheme (NSS).[30] There are other cultural, literary societies and interest groups. Several schools have their own societies based on the course of the school. The School of Technology, have the Robotic Society, which organizes meetings and workshops to expose the students about robotic concept and how to build and program them. The School of Law have Student Bar Association, which organises moot court competitions and make the students ready for the same.[38] National Cadet Corps (India)|The School of Management have forums based on marketing, HR, Finance and IT clubs which promotes and make the student aware on the latest happenings.[39]

Apart from the societies, which organises Intra School competitions, the institute organizes different cultural and academic fest. The annual Techno-Management fest named KIIT FEST is organized every year which provides a platform for the progressive brains of our nation to interact, compete and display their creativity and talent.[30]Koncord is the annual cultural fest organized in KIIT. Some of the schools organize their own fest, like the School of Management organizes its own fest Kolosseum every year. Other celebrations include Independence Day, Republic day are organized with great enthusiasm. KIIT International MUN, although young, has grown to be one of the largest Model United Nations Conferences in India.

Students from various schools of KIIT also come together to bring out “Kritika”, the annual students’ magazine of KIIT.

THE KIIT TBI — Technology Business Incubator is an initiative of KIIT supported by DST, Govt. Of India. It is set up to facilitate and encourage start-ups by providing them with the proper and conducive ecosystem. With more than 10 startups in KIIT TBI, it has a unique mix of pertaining to web 2.0, biotechnology, agriculture, healthcare & legal consulting. Autosports India, the renowned automotive magazine commercial Website is start-up of KIIT undergraduate students of Mechanical Engineering, 2014 batch.[40]

KIIT’s notable alumni are Archita Sahu, Babushan


Kaunas University of Technology

Kaunas University of Technology (KTU) is a public research university located in Kaunas, Lithuania.

Initially established on January 27, 1920, the school was known as “Higher Courses”. With an increased rate of staffing and attendance, the school was instituted as the first independent higher education institution within Lithuania by the government on February 16, 1922. Renamed Vytautas Magnus in 1930, the university specialized in four areas: civil engineering, mechanics, electrical engineering, and chemical technology. The turmoil of World War II brought combinations of Soviet, then German, and finally Soviet re-occupation, numerous name changes and an eventual closing of the university in 1943. After re-occupation by the Soviets in 1944, the University reopened and eventually reformed into Kaunas Polytechnic Institute (KPI) and Kaunas Medical Institute in 1946. Under the influence of Perestroika, the Soviet Lithuanian government reinstated the school’s university status, and it was renamed the Kaunas University of Technology (KTU). Independence from the Soviet Union brought rapid westernization with a flexible module/credit system and membership to many Western European organizations.


The Higher Courses

Z. Žemaitis, a mathematician, and J. Vabalas-Gudaitis, a psychologist, with other intellectuals founded the first centre of studies in Kaunas – the Higher Courses. Among other subdivisions, the Courses included a technical section directed by engineer J. Šimoliūnas. The Higher Courses enjoyed successful growth and in two years they already had 480 students and 48 teachers.

On February 16, 1922 the government of Lithuania passed a resolution establishing the school as a university. The president of Lithuania A. Stulginskis appointed Dr. J. Šimkus as the first rector of the university with Monsignor J. Mačiulis-Maironis as the dean of Theology, A. Voldemaras as the dean of Social Sciences, Z. Žemaitis as the dean of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, P. Avižonis as the dean of Medicine, and P. Jodelė as the dean of technology.

Vytautas Magnus University

On June 7, 1930 the university was named Vytautas Magnus University. The university then consisted of seven faculties consisting of the Faculty of Theology and Philosophy, Faculty of Evangelical Theology, Faculty of Humanities, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Technology.

The beginning of 1940 saw the reorganization of Vytautas Magnus University with The Faculties of Law and Humanities being transferred to the University of Vilnius.

World War II

On August 21, 1940, with occupation by the Soviet Union, the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic was instructed to rename school the University of Kaunas. In the fall of 1940 the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences was transferred to the University of Vilnius.

With German occupation in 1941,[1] the university was once more renamed Vytautas Magnus University with 5 faculties: Theology, Philosophy, Technology, Civil Engineering and Mathematics. On March 17, 1943 the University was closed, along with other Lithuanian institutions of higher education.

On November 13, 1944 the Lithuanian SSR occupational government reopened the University, and until 1946 it operated under the name of Kaunas National Vytautas Magnus University.

Kaunas Polytechnic Institute and Soviet Occupation

In June 1949 the Faculty of History and Theology was closed.

In 1950 the University of Kaunas was reorganized into Kaunas Polytechnic Institute (KPI) and Kaunas Medical Institute. Throughout Soviet occupation, the KPI resisted attempts at Russification and internationalization and strove to preserve the old European university spirit, national academic traditions, and teaching in the Lithuanian language.[citation needed][2]

Kaunas University of Technology

Kaunas University of Technology Science and Technology Center

In 1990 KPI was named Kaunas University of Technology (KTU), regained its university status, and embarked on the road to reforms of studies and science.

In 1992 the university, in accordance with the Law on Science and Education of the Republic of Lithuania, started implementing a two-level degree program of higher education and a new procedure of awarding research degrees and academic titles.

In 1993 a Western flexible module and credit study system was implemented with emphasis on the unity of studies and science, broad fundamental education, liberal study programmes and independent study.

In 1998 the university joined Magna Charta of the European Universities and became a member of the European University Association and the International Association of Universities.


Kaunas University of Technology has 122 study programmes, of which 48 are Bachelor’s, 54 are Master’s, 19 are Doctoral and 1 – non-degree student programmes. 56 of them are taught in English.

University has more than 9,000 students, of which more than 6,600 are Bachelor’s, 2,000 are Master’s and 320 are Doctoral students. 6,5 % of them are foreign[3].

All of that fits into 9 faculties of KTU.


  • Faculty of Chemical Technology
  • School of Economics and Business
  • Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
  • Faculty of Informatics
  • Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
  • Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Design
  • Faculty of Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities
  • Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture
  • Panevėžys Faculty of Technologies and Business

KTU engages in research of physical, technological and social sciences, and experimental development, while research of biomedical sciences and humanities is also promoted. All of that fits into 8 research institutes of KTU.


  • Biomedical Engineering Institute
  • Food Institute
  • Institute of Architecture and Construction
  • Institute of Environmental Engineering
  • Institute of Materials Science
  • Institute of Mechatronics
  • Prof Kazimieras Baršauskas Ultrasound Research Institute
  • Health Telematics Science Institute


KTU is currently ranked 751-800 among World top universities by 2019 QS World University Rankings[7].

Events and achievements

  • In 1998 the KTU Regional Business Incubator was established. It is the first technological business incubator in Lithuania, providing support to enterprises interested in starting new businesses.[8]
  • In 2008 prof. Rymantas Jonas Kažys[9] was awarded with the National Award for Partnership Advancement for creating technologies of supersonic measurement and diagnostics and for the commencement of European scientific research and practice.
  • In 2008 KTU Institute of Environmental Engineering received the Energy Globe 2008 National Award for its preventive energy saving and waste minimization innovation development and implementation system APINI- SPIN.
  • In 2010 prof. Jurgis Kazimieras Staniškis, head of the Institute of Environmental Engineering, was awarded the Baltic Sea Award 2010.[10] Prof. Staniškis is currently the only Lithuanian scientist to receive this award, which goes annually to an individual or organization for putting research findings into practice, technical decisions or other activities that contribute substantially to the Baltic Sea and the sustainable development of the region.
  • In 2010 an agreement on the Integrated Science, Studies and Business Center (Valley)[11] of Santaka sponsorship of the first investment project was signed. The implementation of this project will result in the establishment of a world-class National open-access R&D Center within the KTU Student Campus in Kaunas. The Center will primarily focus in such areas as sustainable chemistry, mechatronics, information and communication technology, and sustainable energy resources, which are a substantial part of the Lithuanian economy and comprise a significant part of its export.

Notes and references